unvaccinated kitten around vaccinated cat
For some infectious diseases, blood samples can be used to measure antibody levels (titres). Reviewers: In addition, vaccine companies will continue to develop new vaccines for existing or emerging infectious diseases in cats. Kittens are old enough to be vaccinated once they are 8-9 weeks old. and are ready to quickly (within hours) produce more antibodies the moment the body is exposed to the invader again.Â These cells do not produce antibodies – and therefore, do not contribute to the titer level – until the body is attacked by the pathogen. We wait until the kitten is at least 16 weeks old to receive his last kitten shot because the antibodies he got from nursing on his mother will have decreased to a low enough level that his own body can respond to the vaccine in order to make his own antibodies.Â (Maternal antibodies within the kitten can ‘tie up’ the vaccine before his body has a chance to respond to it.). A kitten will not be fully protected until seven to ten days after the second vaccination. They also do not replicate in the recipient and there is no reason to believe that they cause kidney inflammation. may feel tired, may run a fever for 24 hours after vaccination, and may not eat as well. However, infection rates remain high in some unvaccinated cat populations, and the disease occasionally is seen in vaccinated, pedigreed kittens that have been exposed to a high virus challenge. 3)Â Herpes and calici viral infections do not have a high mortality rate.Â Death from these viruses is extremely rare and, if it did occur, it would most likely happen in kittenhood. 2)Â There are no DOI challenge studies for panleukopenia post-intranasal vaccination like there are for the MLV vaccines. The immunodominant antigens to which antibodies are formed in these cats are Î±-enolase and Annexin A2, both of which are linked to autoimmunity and renal disease in humans. This is because the older he is, the more mature his immune system is – and better able to respond – and the less chance there will be for the maternal antibodies to be at a high enough level to interfere with his ability to respond to a vaccine. Although I have not seen any literature on the negative reaction rate, I am going to assume that the recombinant vaccines will be less apt to cause an anaphylactic reaction because they contain fewer potential allergens. The present study examines the DOI for core viral vaccines in dogs that had not been revaccinated for as long as 9 years. This means they will need a series of injections known as a ‘primary course’ to build up their immunity. With regard to #2, again, my biggest concern is for dental health.Â I see so many cats suffering from significant dental disease because the mouth is ‘out of sight and out of mind’ for the owners.Â. November 2016 update: Â Sadly, I have lost four of my cats in the past year. Intranasal vaccines are also modified live viruses and all are NON-adjuvanted.Â They are administered via the nose and eyes.Â I do not use them for several reasons.Â The following comments pertain to the intranasal FVRCP vaccine – keeping in mind that the most important virus among the 3 that any FVRCP vaccine targets is panleukopenia: 1)Â The route of infection for panleukopenia is oral, not via the respiratory tract.Â Intranasal vaccines are better at conferring immunity for respiratory viruses and are less effective than an injectable MLV for stimulating immunity to panleukopenia. Rabid pets may display a "dumb" form that is characterized by listlessness, weakness and paralysis, or the "furious" form of rabies characterized by abnormal aggression. Other animals can transmit rabies and tetanus. Keep in mind that the older a kitten is when they are vaccinated (with any vaccine), the more efficiently their immune system will be able to respond.Â Therefore, I would prefer to wait until the kitten is at least 16 weeks of age before receiving a PureVax rabies vaccine. Vaccines against panleukopenia provide excellent protection. Note:Â In 1999, I was involved in a situation where several kittens in a group died from panleukopenia post vaccination with a MLV FVRCP vaccine.Â The vaccine was from a leading vaccine manufacturing company and after speaking with their head veterinarian, it was determined that the vaccine may have reverted to virulence. Most people are familiar with the abbreviation FVRCPÂ which stands for Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (herpes), Calici, Panleukopenia.Â FVRCP is a combination vaccine that includes 3 out of the 5 vaccines that will be discussed on this webpage. Keep in mind that a vaccine protocol is not a ‘one size fits all’ issue and that the medical community is lacking in definitive research in many areas of vaccinology.Â This is why the AAFP and myself make suggestions regarding vaccine protocols – versus etched-in-stone statements. Supporting research regarding vaccinations – 2 abstracts: I put some text in bold.Â Please note that Dr. Ron Schultz is one of the leading experts in immunology and is highly respected. *Dr Pierson’s comment:Â “Sterile immunity” refers to the immune systemÂ preventing infection with the offending agent.Â “Non-sterile immunity” refers to the fact that the pathogen can still infect the body (herpes and calici, for instance) but the clinical signs will not be as severe in a vaccinated animal when compared to an unvaccinated animal.Â End comment. In addition, antigens in the complexes were similar to the vaccine antigens in the DHLPP vaccine, suggesting that the glomerulonephropathy in this puppy was secondary to frequent and unnecessary vaccination. Local factors and individual animal requirements may dictate more frequent vaccination scheduling and this should be discussed with your veterinarian. If a cat shows any titer at all, this means that he has either been vaccinated in the past (and responded to that vaccine) or he has been naturally exposed to the disease. ?Â Yearly?Â Every 3 years? 4) On a positive note, intranasal vaccines cannot cause a vaccine associated sarcoma and they have been shown to cause noÂ kidney inflammation.Â However, even in light of these ‘pluses’ I am not comfortable using them to protect kittens against panleukopenia. This can be discussed, and decisions made with the help of your veterinarian. Before this, take care to only socialise your kitten with vaccinated cats and avoid taking them outside until they have received the full course of FIV vaccinations. My goals in writing this page are to get the reader to: Adjuvants are substances that are added to vaccines to purposely cause inflammation at the vaccine site in order to alert the immune system to its presence.Â They are used with killed vaccines to stimulate a more robust immune response but can also cause a fatal, aggressive tumor (sarcoma) at the site of vaccine injection.Â (See below for a picture of “Chicken” – a sweet cat who fought a long battle with this cancer.). This is why I carefully weigh out my options before injecting anything into a cat – given their tendency to develop cancer at the site of any inflammation – if there is a safer alternative. If you wish to discuss the specifics of your cat’s situation you will need to set up an appointment for a phone consultation. This virus causes a multitude of disorders from tumours, (including leukemia), to bone marrow suppression, to silent infection, although some infected cats may not show clinical signs for several years. Here is an excerpt from one of those studies:Â (See below for a ‘plain English’ summary.). Rabies feline enteritis: Feline infectious enteritis is a disease caused when cats become infected with feline parvovirus (you might also see it referred to as feline panleukopenia virus). If a kitten is in a high risk situation (e.g., feral kitten that is to be released following a TNR [trap, neuter, return] protocol, or is living outside for any other reason), they can be vaccinated as early as 8 weeks of age. Cats who are vaccinated will either show no signs of illness or are less likely to become seriously ill from specific diseases. Unfortunately, it has been hard enough to get veterinarians to switch from annual vaccines to the current 3-year protocol so it is going to be an uphill battle to get them to vaccinate even less frequently.Â Therefore, I do not see changes in the AAFP suggestions coming anytime soon. Â They ranged in age from 18-20 years. Therefore, it is almost impossible to remove the entire tumor.Â Click here to follow Chicken’s blog.Â Update:Â Sadly, Chicken passed away on 12/17/11 from a saddle thrombus which is a blood clot in the aorta. While most … Given the above, it is obvious that titer testing has some severe limitations when being used to assess the status of a patient’s immune system.Â If a titer is low, that does not necessarily mean that the patient is unprotected.Â If he has a lot of memory cells standing by waiting, he is considered to be well-protected against diseases that are best eliminated with a quick antibody response. The AAFP guidelines suggest giving the FVRCP every 3-4 weeks until the kitten is 16 weeks of age.Â This is done in an attempt to vaccinate the kitten the minute his maternal antibody level wanes to a low enough level to allow him to respond to the vaccine.Â That way, there will be a minimal gap between the time his mother’s antibodies stop protecting him and the time when he can start making his own antibodies. A vaccination is a preparation of microorganisms (pathogens), such as viruses or bacteria, that is administered to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease. For this reason, initial core kitten vaccinations occur at three- to four-week intervals until the cat is 16-20 weeks old and maternal antibodies are out of the system. Cat scratches, even from a kitten, can carry "cat scratch disease," a bacterial infection. Current conventional protocol states that you can start to vaccinate kittens as early as 6 weeks of age but it would be a very rare situation that would cause me to start vaccinating a kitten at such a young age. Why do so many cats end up in kidney failure? This is known as the ‘primary course’. Other vaccines may be recommended based on the risk a particular disease poses to an individual cat (non-core vaccines). 2020–2021 Students of the CVMA Senior Representatives! herpes (rhinotracheitis) – the ‘R’ in FVRCP, panleukopenia (“feline distemper”) – the ‘P’ in FVRCP, risk of exposure to the disease in question, prevalence of the disease in the environment, DOI studies (Duration of Immunity) for the vaccine, vaccine properties (adjuvanted/non-adjuvanted, etc. More animals need to be vaccinated to increase herd (population) immunity. Very rarely, a cat will develop facial itchiness, or a generalized allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, breathing difficulties, and extremely rarely, collapse. Vaccinations, by definition, protect your kitten from contracting specific diseases. Feral cat populations remain a reservoir host for the rabies virus. Titres are not recommended for rabies to assess vaccine protection as they are far less reliable, except for those tests used for export. Kittens surely have a course of three vaccinations, normally given 4 weeks apart: 6 – 8 Weeks First Vaccination - Temporary 10 – 12 Weeks Booster Vaccination Your new kitten will start life with some natural immunity from diseases from her mum, but as this wears off you'll need to have her vaccinated to keep her healthy. Myth: Once I’ve had my kitten vaccinated they’re immune for life. If you choose to adopt a kitten or cat from us, they will be vaccinated before they leave our care. The AAFP guidelines call for a series of 2 FVRCP vaccines to be given 3-4 weeks apart to an adult with an unknown vaccination history but the WSAVA (World Small Animal Veterinary Association) recommends that only 1 FVRCP vaccine be given with a booster vaccine 1 year later. Most people have heard of Lupus.Â Lupus is an autoimmune disease most commonly seen in humans.Â In essence, the FVRCP vaccines have the potential to stimulate a Lupus-like reaction in the recipient. Panleukopenia:Â This is a highly contagious virus that infects the intestines causing severe bloody diarrhea and vomiting.Â This disease has a very high mortality rate. The final vaccine, however, should not be given before your pet turns sixteen weeks. They will have an initial injection, and then a second about 3 weeks later, as well as a thorough health check, and discussion about all aspects of kitten-care, including neutering, flea and worm protection, diet and behaviour. Pets age much faster than people in the same amount of time; an annual “check-up” allows your veterinarian to early detection and management of illnesses such as dental disease, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and kidney failure that may develop as your cat ages. Any questions about your animal's health should be directed to your veterinarian. The 7-month-old male cocker spaniel presented to the veterinary clinic with vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia. Unvaccinated cats are a risk to the general cat community by serving as a source of infection for other cats, including young kittens. When given to young kittens, protection from their mothers (via antibodies in the milk) interferes with the vaccine, so multiple doses of vaccine need to be given. Animals: One CRFK hyperinoculated rabbit, 44 age‐matched unvaccinated kittens purchased from a commercial vendor. What Vaccines Does My Cat Need? All killed vaccines are adjuvanted and may cause malignant tumors. We certainly must stop vaccinating with FVRCP every year but taking it one step further, I do not follow the AAFP guidelines which suggest giving the FVRCP every 3 years since the risks outweigh the benefits. Protective response to vaccines can be reduced in any cat with poor health, due to an uncompleted series of boosters, and in animals taking drugs that can suppress the immune system. To clarify:Â Merial makes a PureVax FVRCP vaccine but it is not a recombinant product.Â It is a modified live vaccine (non-adjuvanted) just like other manufactures make. More frequent examinations may be needed for cats with special needs or disease conditions. Reasons why a kitten may not fully respond to a series of vaccines as a kitten and would benefit from a 1 year booster are: 1)Â The last kitten shot was given when he was younger than 16 weeks of age. In general, adaptive immunity to viruses develops earliest and is highly effective. Commentary: Although membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is reported as 1 of the most common glomerulopathies in dogs, a definitive diagnosis and identification of the offending antigen are rarely identified due to the risk and expense associated with renal biopsies and electron microscopy. 2) visit the Dental Health sections on my Feeding Your Cat and Making Cat Food web pages.Â Cats, like humans, vary greatly in their propensity for forming tartar and in their overall dental health status.Â Some cats need to have their teeth cleaned (under general anesthesia) yearly, yet others may be fine with cleanings every ~2-3 years.Â I do not support anesthesia-free dental ‘cleanings’ since it is not even remotely possible to adequately take care of a cat’s (or dog’s) dental needs while they are awake. Remember that vaccination doesn’t just protect your cat, it protects vulnerable kittens and cats around too, and in some cases such as with rabies, you and your family. The above case involved an owner who, without veterinary supervision, vaccinated his puppy 7 times – 1 time perÂ month.Â The puppy died at 7 months of age from kidney failure due to kidney inflammation.Â The two most striking facts/comments in this case report are: In addition, antigens in the complexes were similar to the vaccine antigens in the DHLPP vaccine, suggesting that the glomerulonephropathy in this puppy was secondary to frequent and unnecessary vaccination.”, Further studies are required at this time to determine the role, if any, that recent past and current vaccine protocols play in the development of protein-losing nephropathies.”. Pregnant cats can pass the disease to their unborn kittens. When a vaccinated cat encounters these agents in the future, it rapidly generates antibodies and activates the cells that recognize the agents, producing an immune response that results in the elimination of the invading agent. After vaccination, the immune system is trained to recognize infectious agents by producing proteins called antibodies or activating specific cells to kill the agents. My own cats are not vaccinated for rabies since I live in an area where rabies is not common, my cats have never been outside and never will step ‘paw’ outside, and I am confident that a bat cannot enter my home. A cat’s immune system is not any more ‘forgetful’ than a human’s immune system.Â In other words, there is no reason to believe that they need to be vaccinated so often.Â Their immune system, to the contrary, has a very good memory. Unfortunately, as is true for the ‘common cold’ in humans, there is no 100% effective vaccine for herpes and calici in the cat.Â One reason is that these viruses mutate (change) frequently and there are many different strains.Â The vaccine will not prevent infection but will, hopefully, lessen the severity of clinical signs. That said, even though injected substances other than adjuvants can cause sarcomas, these tumors were relatively rare prior to the advent of adjuvants. Are Vaccines Safe? In contrast, adaptive immunity to bacteria, fungi or parasites develops more slowly and the DOI is generally short compared with most systemic viral infections. 2)Â veterinarians are concerned that if they move their feline patients to the 3-year product the cat will not be brought to their clinic for yearly exams.Â This is a legitimate concern since our cats cannot speak and warn us of health problems early on.Â Dental disease is a major problem among cats that ‘flies under the radar,’ going unnoticed until significant disease is present. In lieu of this 1 year booster, I would suggest titer testing. I disagree with the recommendation to vaccinate all kittens. Given that this is an area of controversy, I want to start with a ‘food for thought’ question: How often are you getting vaccinated for measles, mumps, chicken pox, tetanus, etc. All kittens should not be rehomed until after eight weeks old – whether you adopt your cat from a breeder or rescue organisation. Â Three succumbed to cancer and one passed away from acute kidney failure. Another ‘shock’ organ of the cat is the intestinal tract.Â Cats can exhibit mild to severe vomiting and diarrhea – sometimes bloody. Large outbreaks have occurred in unvaccinated cats in shelters, and there has been spread among pet cats … Most cats have some protection covering them for around three months after the date their vaccine is due. An allergic reaction, in simplistic terms, it is an overreaction by the immune system to a foreign substance that enters the body. If a lump persists for three months, grows larger than 2 cm in diameter or continues to grow beyond one month after injection, ask your veterinarian to evaluate it. Your veterinarian will develop a vaccination protocol suited to your pet. Preview:Â Please consider brushing your cat’s teeth since it is the very best way to maintain their dental health. Fortunately, there is one line of non-adjuvanted rabies vaccines available and that is Merial’s PureVax rabies vaccines but it is important to keep in mind that sarcomas have occurred at the site of PureVax vaccines so we want to be mindful of the frequency that even this vaccine is used. Foreign substances that can cause allergic/anaphylactic reactions includeÂ all vaccines, all drugs, foods, etc. All kittens need vaccinations to help keep them healthy. These ‘newer’ guidelines are based on DOI (duration of immunity) studies showing that it is not necessary to vaccinate cats as frequently as they have been in the past.Â In fact, the DOI studies show that it is not even necessary to vaccinate as frequently as every 3 years for FVRCP. Â None of my cats had been vaccinated for FVRCP (herpes, calici, and panleukopenia viruses) since they were kittens and I wanted to know what their antibody level (titer) was to panleukopenia – the dreaded and often fatal ‘cat distemper’ virus. The Center for Companion Animal Studies at Colorado State University has shown that cats vaccinated with FVRCP vaccines grown on Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cell lines can develop antibodies to renal (kidney) proteins, and that cats hypersensitized to CRFK cell lysates can develop interstitial nephritis. Though these tests do not provide evidence of protective immunity, some clinicians use high titre results as an indicator, along with low disease exposure risk that vaccines might be administered at a longer than usual revaccination interval. As odd as it may sound, if I rescue a neutered adult male cat with a fairly good size (empty) scrotal sac, I assume (rightly or wrongly….) (Some of this dialog is also stated in the above sections.). Vaccination can provide an immune response that is similar in duration to that following a natural infection. Cat vaccinations are divided into two types: All kittens should receive a vaccination that protects against feline rhinotracheitis, feline calicivirus, and feline panleukopenia (FVRCP). 2) If your cat is not vaccinated for rabies (i.e., legally current) and they come in direct contact with a wild animal that is not available for rabies testing, quarantine for up to 6 months may be required.Â How strictly this is enforced varies from state-to-state, county-to-county and I will note that there has been a recent move in some counties to reduce that time. If you are more comfortable vaccinating a cat that goes outside, please do not vaccinate him yearly.Â Vaccinating one time with a PureVax (the only NON-adjuvanted option) vaccine would fit within my comfort zone. between 16 weeks and 1 year of age). This could happen due to a problem within the manufacturing process or because of poor handling of the vaccine after it left the manufacturing plant. A vaccination is a preparation of microorganisms (pathogens), such as viruses or bacteria, that is administered to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease.Â There can be no disputing that vaccines save lives but they also have the potential to cause serious side effects which will be discussed on this webpage. As already mentioned, this is the most common subject that I consult on and it is upsetting to see so many domestic cats end up dying from kidney disease when it is not that prevalent in wild cats.Â I understand that cats in the wild do not typically live as long as our little furry buddies but I still cannot accept that natural aging is the only factor involved in this disease process. there may be a link between the FVRCP vaccine and kidney inflammation. 4) The vaccine was of inadequate immunogenicity which means that the vaccine was damaged in terms of its efficacy. This study shows that nosodes can be effective in disease prevention, and when dogs do contract disease, the severity of symptoms can be reduced with their use. This report described a clinical case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in a young dog. In closing, I would like to see less money being spent on over-vaccination of our cats and more money being spent on dental health care which will be the subject of my next webpage. The incubation period is approximately 5 days (range 2–10 days). If the animal under observation develops any signs of illness, it should be evaluated by a veterinarian. (No cat is going to let a human probe and clean under their gum line.). Complete blood count and serum biochemical values were consistent withÂ renal disease, including anemia, severe azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Many veterinarians are choosing not to carry the PureVax line (either the 1-year or the 3-year rabies vaccine, or the PureVax FeLV vaccine) because PureVax products are much more expensive than adjuvanted vaccines.Â Many veterinarians practicing in low-income areas or in animal shelters on limited budgets are still using the more inflammatory adjuvanted rabies vaccines. 4) Even though a non-adjuvanted FVRCP vaccine is much less likely to cause a sarcoma, sarcomas have been noted with these vaccines. Consider the facts that enter into the risk-benefit analysis: 1) A single, properly-timed, FVRCP vaccine confers life-long immunity toÂ panleukopenia (the most serious disease among the 3 that the FVRCP targets) in the vast majority of cats.Â Those very few cats that may not be protected are considered to be ‘non-responders’ and giving them more vaccines is unlikely to help. If you read the AAFP guidelines, there is the potential for administering 4-5 vaccines in the kitten series.Â Given the fact that the FVRCP vaccine has been proven to cause kidney inflammation (nephritis), I am not comfortable following their suggestions. Unvaccinated cats are a risk to the general cat community by serving as a source of infection for other cats, including young kittens. Ideally, kittens won’t yet have been exposed to diseases. Before we get started on this discussion, it is important to understand that there is no single vaccine protocol that fits every situation and every person’s individual comfort level.Â There are many factors involved in the decision making process but at the core of each decision is: This webpage discusses vaccine protocols that are within my comfort zone but may not be within the readers.’ Â It is also important to understand that a discussion involving FVRCP (herpes, calici, panleukopenia) and FeLV (feline leukemia) vaccination is separate from one discussing rabies vaccination. Certain breeds may be given before your pet turns sixteen weeks drugs, foods, etc days... Immune responses often result in the above sections. ) owners believe vaccines produce per... The present study examines the DOI for core viral vaccines in dogs that not. Fvrcp booster 1 year booster vaccination is the fancy term for kidney inflammation protection covering for... 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